In [1]:
import nltk
text = nltk.word_tokenize("And now for something completely different")
print nltk.pos_tag(text) 
[('And', 'CC'), ('now', 'RB'), ('for', 'IN'), ('something', 'NN'), ('completely', 'RB'), ('different', 'JJ')]

In [2]:
nltk.help.upenn_tagset('RB') 
RB: adverb
    occasionally unabatingly maddeningly adventurously professedly
    stirringly prominently technologically magisterially predominately
    swiftly fiscally pitilessly ...

In [3]:
nltk.help.brown_tagset('NN.*') 
NN: noun, singular, common
    failure burden court fire appointment awarding compensation Mayor
    interim committee fact effect airport management surveillance jail
    doctor intern extern night weekend duty legislation Tax Office ...
NN$: noun, singular, common, genitive
    season's world's player's night's chapter's golf's football's
    baseball's club's U.'s coach's bride's bridegroom's board's county's
    firm's company's superintendent's mob's Navy's ...
NN+BEZ: noun, singular, common + verb 'to be', present tense, 3rd person singular
    water's camera's sky's kid's Pa's heat's throat's father's money's
    undersecretary's granite's level's wife's fat's Knife's fire's name's
    hell's leg's sun's roulette's cane's guy's kind's baseball's ...
NN+HVD: noun, singular, common + verb 'to have', past tense
    Pa'd
NN+HVZ: noun, singular, common + verb 'to have', present tense, 3rd person singular
    guy's Knife's boat's summer's rain's company's
NN+IN: noun, singular, common + preposition
    buncha
NN+MD: noun, singular, common + modal auxillary
    cowhand'd sun'll
NN+NN: noun, singular, common, hyphenated pair
    stomach-belly
NNS: noun, plural, common
    irregularities presentments thanks reports voters laws legislators
    years areas adjustments chambers $100 bonds courts sales details raises
    sessions members congressmen votes polls calls ...
NNS$: noun, plural, common, genitive
    taxpayers' children's members' States' women's cutters' motorists'
    steelmakers' hours' Nations' lawyers' prisoners' architects' tourists'
    Employers' secretaries' Rogues' ...
NNS+MD: noun, plural, common + modal auxillary
    duds'd oystchers'll

Data Driven Lexical Classes

In [4]:
text = nltk.Text(word.lower() for word in nltk.corpus.brown.words()) 
In [6]:
text.similar('woman') 
man time day year car moment world family house country child boy
state job way war girl place word work

In [7]:
text.similar('bought') 
made said put done seen had found left given heard brought got been
was set told took in felt that

In [8]:
text.similar('over') 
in on to of and for with from at by that into as up out down through
is all about

In [9]:
text.similar('the') 
a his this their its her an that our any all one these my in your no
some other and

Tagged Corpora

In [10]:
nltk.corpus.brown.tagged_words() 
Out[10]:
[(u'The', u'AT'), (u'Fulton', u'NP-TL'), ...]
In [28]:
nltk.corpus.brown.tagged_words(tagset='universal') 
Out[28]:
[(u'The', u'DET'), (u'Fulton', u'NOUN'), ...]
In [17]:
nltk.corpus.nps_chat.tagged_words() 
Out[17]:
[(u'now', 'RB'), (u'im', 'PRP'), (u'left', 'VBD'), ...]
In [18]:
nltk.corpus.conll2000.tagged_words() 
Out[18]:
[(u'Confidence', u'NN'), (u'in', u'IN'), ...]
In [19]:
nltk.corpus.treebank.tagged_words() 
Out[19]:
[(u'Pierre', u'NNP'), (u'Vinken', u'NNP'), ...]

Count Frequent Tags

In [4]:
from nltk.corpus import brown 
brown_news_tagged = brown.tagged_words(categories='news') 
tag_fd = nltk.FreqDist(tag for (word, tag) in brown_news_tagged) 
In [5]:
tag_fd.keys() 
Out[5]:
[u'BE',
 u'BEZ-HL',
 u'NP$',
 u'WQL',
 u'AT-TL',
 u'BEDZ*',
 u'WDT',
 u'JJ',
 u'NR-HL',
 u'AP$',
 u'RP',
 u'WPS+BEZ',
 u'JJ-NC',
 u'(',
 u'PPSS+BER',
 u',',
 u'VBN-TL-HL',
 u'HVD-HL',
 u'PPSS+BEM',
 u'NPS-HL',
 u'RB',
 u'FW-PP$-NC',
 u'JJ-HL',
 u'NNS',
 u'WRB',
 u'MD-TL',
 u'NN-NC',
 u'DOD*',
 u'NN$',
 u'PPLS',
 u')-HL',
 u'BEZ*',
 u'RB-HL',
 u'NNS$',
 u'NPS-TL',
 u'NNS-HL',
 u'FW-IN+NN-TL',
 u'--',
 u'BER-TL',
 u'OD',
 u'PP$$',
 u'CC-TL',
 u'FW-NN-TL',
 u'NP-TL-HL',
 u'AP-TL',
 u'PPSS+MD',
 u'FW-JJ',
 u'FW-DT',
 u'BER*',
 u'FW-WDT',
 u'NPS',
 u'DTI',
 u'BEN',
 u'BEM',
 u'EX+BEZ',
 u'HV',
 u'BEG',
 u'BED',
 u'HVD',
 u'BEZ',
 u'DTX',
 u'FW-VB-NC',
 u'VBZ',
 u'DTS',
 u'RB-TL',
 u'VB-TL',
 u'NNS-TL',
 u'FW-CC',
 u'CS-HL',
 u'NP$-TL',
 u'FW-CD',
 u'ABN-HL',
 u'IN-HL',
 u'JJT-HL',
 u'BED*',
 u'BEDZ',
 u'NN-TL-HL',
 u'PN',
 u'JJR-HL',
 u'FW-AT-TL',
 u'PPSS+HVD',
 u'VBD-HL',
 u'MD-HL',
 u'NNS-TL-HL',
 u'DTI-HL',
 u'EX',
 u'VBN-HL',
 u'NNS$-HL',
 u'PPSS-HL',
 u'MD',
 u'BE-HL',
 u'TO-TL',
 u'NN-HL',
 u'VBZ-HL',
 u'NR$-TL',
 u'DT$',
 u'WP$',
 u'MD+HV',
 u'TO-HL',
 u'PPS+BEZ',
 u'DT-HL',
 u'CD$',
 u'VBG',
 u'VBD',
 u'VBN-TL',
 u'DOZ*',
 u'VBN',
 u'DOD',
 u'UH-TL',
 u'DOZ',
 u'NR-TL',
 u'AP-HL',
 u'AT-HL',
 u'.',
 u'FW-AT',
 u'NN',
 u'(-HL',
 u'MD*-HL',
 u'*',
 u'WPS',
 u'WPO',
 u'FW-NNS',
 u'NP',
 u'JJR-NC',
 u'NR',
 u':',
 u'BER-HL',
 u'MD*',
 u'``',
 u':-HL',
 u'RP-HL',
 u'CC',
 u'PP$-TL',
 u'WDT+BEZ',
 u'CD-HL',
 u'NPS$-TL',
 u'CD',
 u'DT+BEZ',
 u',-HL',
 u'OD-HL',
 u'PPS+MD',
 u'CS',
 u'NN$-HL',
 u'NP-TL',
 u'QL-TL',
 u'DO*',
 u'PPS+BEZ-HL',
 u'VB-HL',
 u'DO-HL',
 u'HVN',
 u'JJT',
 u'JJS',
 u'JJR',
 u'HVG',
 u'HVZ',
 u'PN+HVZ',
 u'NNS$-TL',
 u'CC-HL',
 u'JJ-TL',
 u'HVZ*',
 u'VBG-TL',
 u'DO',
 u'FW-JJ-TL',
 u'FW-*',
 u'NP+BEZ',
 u'NP-HL',
 u'NPS$',
 u'NN-TL',
 u'PPSS',
 u'NR$',
 u"''",
 u'BER',
 u'FW-VB',
 u'PN-HL',
 u'CD-TL',
 u'BEDZ-HL',
 u'DT',
 u'VBD-TL',
 u'PN$',
 u'VB+PPO',
 u')',
 u'VBG-HL',
 u'PPO',
 u'PPL',
 u'PPS',
 u'TO',
 u'RB$',
 u'FW-IN+NN',
 u'UH',
 u'VB',
 u'OD-TL',
 u'FW-IN',
 u'PP$',
 u'RBT',
 u'ABL',
 u'RBR',
 u'ABN',
 u'AP',
 u'PPSS+HV',
 u'AT',
 u'JJS-TL',
 u'IN',
 u'ABX',
 u'*-HL',
 u'FW-AT-HL',
 u'HVD*',
 u"'",
 u'JJR-TL',
 u'RB+BEZ',
 u'NN$-TL',
 u'FW-IN-TL',
 u'QLP',
 u'IN-TL',
 u'FW-NN',
 u'FW-IN+AT-TL',
 u'PPS+HVZ',
 u'QL',
 u'.-HL']
In [7]:
nltk.help.brown_tagset('RB+BEZ') 
RB+BEZ: adverb + verb 'to be', present tense, 3rd person singular
    here's there's

In [43]:
word_tag_pairs = nltk.bigrams(brown_news_tagged) 
In [51]:
fd = nltk.FreqDist(a[1] for (a, b) in nltk.bigrams(brown_news_tagged) if b[1] == 'NOUN')
In [52]:
fd
Out[52]:
FreqDist({u'NOUN': 7959, u'DET': 7363, u'ADJ': 4758, u'ADP': 3781, u'.': 2795, u'VERB': 1842, u'CONJ': 938, u'NUM': 894, u'ADV': 186, u'PRT': 94, ...})
In [55]:
wsj = nltk.corpus.treebank.tagged_words(tagset='universal')
word_tag_fd = nltk.FreqDist(wsj) 
print [word + "/" + tag for (word, tag) in word_tag_fd if tag.startswith('V')]
[u'fattened/VERB', u'eliminate/VERB', u'repriced/VERB', u'fabricate/VERB', u'complicate/VERB', u'hampered/VERB', u'bombarding/VERB', u'devouring/VERB', u'hid/VERB', u'operates/VERB', u'can/VERB', u'obsessed/VERB', u'walking/VERB', u'decries/VERB', u'study/VERB', u'proscribes/VERB', u'warns/VERB', u'prefer/VERB', u'restricting/VERB', u'fear/VERB', u'getting/VERB', u'spook/VERB', u'valued/VERB', u'replies/VERB', u'delisted/VERB', u'diversifying/VERB', u'deny/VERB', u'is/VERB', u'shed/VERB', u'labeling/VERB', u'seem/VERB', u'stop/VERB', u'citing/VERB', u'lengthen/VERB', u'retained/VERB', u'sink/VERB', u'conduct/VERB', u'nurtured/VERB', u'drifted/VERB', u'succeeded/VERB', u'amend/VERB', u'alleged/VERB', u'diluted/VERB', u'initialing/VERB', u'shot/VERB', u'dressed/VERB', u'handles/VERB', u'drinking/VERB', u'approved/VERB', u'obtain/VERB', u'priced/VERB', u'strike/VERB', u'responds/VERB', u'assisted/VERB', u'means/VERB', u'transformed/VERB', u'inhibit/VERB', u'slip/VERB', u'break/VERB', u'seize/VERB', u'rule/VERB', u'structured/VERB', u'mind/VERB', u'projects/VERB', u'realized/VERB', u'Pick/VERB', u'paid/VERB', u'defeats/VERB', u'reaching/VERB', u'Adds/VERB', u'quitting/VERB', u'replacing/VERB', u'Can/VERB', u'snaking/VERB', u'convince/VERB', u'portrayed/VERB', u'capture/VERB', u'sounds/VERB', u'mention/VERB', u'showing/VERB', u'mortgaged/VERB', u'scans/VERB', u'brokering/VERB', u'posing/VERB', u'materialized/VERB', u'curtailed/VERB', u'begins/VERB', u'fallen/VERB', u'boosting/VERB', u'noticing/VERB', u'handed/VERB', u'squeezed/VERB', u'seduce/VERB', u'treated/VERB', u'arranged/VERB', u'chopped/VERB', u'affect/VERB', u'emerges/VERB', u'dwindling/VERB', u'converting/VERB', u'targeting/VERB', u'matched/VERB', u'got/VERB', u'includes/VERB', u'provoked/VERB', u'discontinued/VERB', u'worried/VERB', u'mailing/VERB', u'lead/VERB', u'enjoyed/VERB', u'took/VERB', u'issued/VERB', u'resolved/VERB', u'pushed/VERB', u'permitted/VERB', u'gained/VERB', u'put/VERB', u'done/VERB', u'delete/VERB', u'spurned/VERB', u'condemning/VERB', u'installed/VERB', u'scrounge/VERB', u'publishing/VERB', u'exhibits/VERB', u'declined/VERB', u'consists/VERB', u'die/VERB', u'attacking/VERB', u'install/VERB', u'muscling/VERB', u'attend/VERB', u'expanding/VERB', u'ordering/VERB', u'fail/VERB', u'match/VERB', u'sleep/VERB', u'varied/VERB', u'monopolize/VERB', u'prevents/VERB', u'soliciting/VERB', u'waive/VERB', u'Beginning/VERB', u'collecting/VERB', u'analyze/VERB', u'moderated/VERB', u'happen/VERB', u'appoint/VERB', u'riding/VERB', u'barking/VERB', u'developing/VERB', u'waited/VERB', u'spun/VERB', u'stressed/VERB', u'Regarded/VERB', u'discourage/VERB', u'traced/VERB', u'happens/VERB', u'begun/VERB', u'added/VERB', u'underlying/VERB', u'compiled/VERB', u'leapt/VERB', u'delayed/VERB', u'undercut/VERB', u'playing/VERB', u'regarded/VERB', u'classed/VERB', u'consisting/VERB', u'leave/VERB', u'boost/VERB', u'draws/VERB', u'relies/VERB', u'plunged/VERB', u'demonstrating/VERB', u'earned/VERB', u'finished/VERB', u'sense/VERB', u'limit/VERB', u'subjecting/VERB', u'have/VERB', u'focused/VERB', u'criticized/VERB', u'eliminated/VERB', u'protecting/VERB', u'violate/VERB', u'leveling/VERB', u'gauges/VERB', u'colored/VERB', u'located/VERB', u'seemed/VERB', u'claiming/VERB', u'assessed/VERB', u'attracts/VERB', u'appropriated/VERB', u'proven/VERB', u'Reducing/VERB', u'own/VERB', u'constitute/VERB', u'measured/VERB', u'outpaced/VERB', u'whistle/VERB', u'acquires/VERB', u'invades/VERB', u'pay/VERB', u'proposing/VERB', u'routes/VERB', u'banning/VERB', u'directed/VERB', u'suing/VERB', u'selected/VERB', u'losing/VERB', u'recalls/VERB', u'appeared/VERB', u'sending/VERB', u'scared/VERB', u'disturbs/VERB', u'appeal/VERB', u'satisfying/VERB', u'combine/VERB', u'purchased/VERB', u'shopping/VERB', u'punish/VERB', u'fumes/VERB', u'disciplined/VERB', u'asked/VERB', u'pine/VERB', u'strapped/VERB', u'dominated/VERB', u'looming/VERB', u'removed/VERB', u'missed/VERB', u'defeated/VERB', u'publishes/VERB', u'regulated/VERB', u"'re/VERB", u'profit/VERB', u'debate/VERB', u'decorated/VERB', u'resolve/VERB', u'claim/VERB', u'Reached/VERB', u'casting/VERB', u'spend/VERB', u'loading/VERB', u'absorbed/VERB', u'needing/VERB', u'circulated/VERB', u'plays/VERB', u'foundering/VERB', u'fielded/VERB', u'digs/VERB', u'shut/VERB', u'land/VERB', u'Legislating/VERB', u'balked/VERB', u'learned/VERB', u'belongs/VERB', u'show/VERB', u'worry/VERB', u'increased/VERB', u'export/VERB', u'build/VERB', u'lowering/VERB', u'single/VERB', u'serves/VERB', u'ripen/VERB', u'impending/VERB', u'arrest/VERB', u'altered/VERB', u'scuttle/VERB', u'invests/VERB', u'imposing/VERB', u'mixed/VERB', u'go/VERB', u'sustained/VERB', u'centralized/VERB', u'killing/VERB', u'cultivated/VERB', u'Put/VERB', u'fled/VERB', u'appease/VERB', u'protect/VERB', u'lending/VERB', u'mirrors/VERB', u'repaired/VERB', u'propagandizes/VERB', u'inviting/VERB', u'hurt/VERB', u'withdraw/VERB', u'practicing/VERB', u'weaken/VERB', u'influencing/VERB', u'ringing/VERB', u'demonstrates/VERB', u'resubmit/VERB', u'control/VERB', u'welcome/VERB', u'Confronted/VERB', u'link/VERB', u'merge/VERB', u'defends/VERB', u'renovated/VERB', u'began/VERB', u'teaches/VERB', u'obligated/VERB', u'fired/VERB', u'Winning/VERB', u'implant/VERB', u'move/VERB', u'exceeds/VERB', u'perpetuates/VERB', u'agreed/VERB', u'depending/VERB', u'perpetuate/VERB', u'contradict/VERB', u'violating/VERB', u'competes/VERB', u'lent/VERB', u'hunted/VERB', u'midsized/VERB', u'simulates/VERB', u'check/VERB', u'operating/VERB', u'boast/VERB', u'aces/VERB', u'sentencing/VERB', u'lives/VERB', u'extend/VERB', u'amounted/VERB', u'forecasting/VERB', u'falsify/VERB', u'thinking/VERB', u'develop/VERB', u'averted/VERB', u'accounts/VERB', u'inserted/VERB', u'declare/VERB', u'retires/VERB', u'suggest/VERB', u'lack/VERB', u'competed/VERB', u'bludgeon/VERB', u'participated/VERB', u'recycled/VERB', u'accommodate/VERB', u'believes/VERB', u'traded/VERB', u'met/VERB', u'convert/VERB', u'surrounding/VERB', u'interested/VERB', u'aims/VERB', u'emphasized/VERB', u'raises/VERB', u'cluttered/VERB', u'achieve/VERB', u'befuddled/VERB', u'channel/VERB', u'taken/VERB', u'vowed/VERB', u'pointing/VERB', u'tumbled/VERB', u'marketed/VERB', u'dismissed/VERB', u'stimulated/VERB', u'exploded/VERB', u'spark/VERB', u'enter/VERB', u'expires/VERB', u'condemned/VERB', u'Arbitraging/VERB', u'abounding/VERB', u'afflicted/VERB', u'selling/VERB', u'sought/VERB', u'appears/VERB', u'wait/VERB', u'wins/VERB', u'twinned/VERB', u'stoked/VERB', u'occupying/VERB', u'telling/VERB', u'beleaguered/VERB', u'subpoenaed/VERB', u'cooperating/VERB', u'revised/VERB', u'expunged/VERB', u'deteriorated/VERB', u'approach/VERB', u'rusted/VERB', u'authorizes/VERB', u'chat/VERB', u'ushering/VERB', u'sparing/VERB', u'complaining/VERB', u'vote/VERB', u'described/VERB', u'abolishing/VERB', u'running/VERB', u'take/VERB', u'detailed/VERB', u'share/VERB', u'fawning/VERB', u'broadened/VERB', u'servicing/VERB', u'booked/VERB', u'find/VERB', u'tied/VERB', u'investigating/VERB', u'interviewed/VERB', u'stands/VERB', u'Adopting/VERB', u'factoring/VERB', u'capitalize/VERB', u'specializing/VERB', u'clarified/VERB', u'compete/VERB', u'scream/VERB', u'climbed/VERB', u'entitled/VERB', u'supports/VERB', u'represent/VERB', u'expects/VERB', u'diversified/VERB', u'collected/VERB', u'bundling/VERB', u'hailing/VERB', u'renewing/VERB', u'spackle/VERB', u'inquiring/VERB', u'produces/VERB', u'retiring/VERB', u'viewed/VERB', u'recruited/VERB', u'given/VERB', u'Am/VERB', u'participate/VERB', u'crack/VERB', u'contends/VERB', u'begot/VERB', u'being/VERB', u'open/VERB', u'offset/VERB', u'Touches/VERB', u'occurs/VERB', u'disgorge/VERB', u'pick/VERB', u'concentrated/VERB', u'abating/VERB', u'rushed/VERB', u'diversify/VERB', u'restructured/VERB', u'swallow/VERB', u'dubbed/VERB', u'escalated/VERB', u'zip/VERB', u'appearing/VERB', u'redeeming/VERB', u'overdone/VERB', u"C'mon/VERB", u'result/VERB', u'involves/VERB', u'tracks/VERB', u'accepting/VERB', u'sells/VERB', u'solved/VERB', u'published/VERB', u'disapproved/VERB', u'postponed/VERB', u'aimed/VERB', u'throws/VERB', u'numbered/VERB', u'PORTING/VERB', u'may/VERB', u'eating/VERB', u'like/VERB', u'promoting/VERB', u'tempted/VERB', u'coordinate/VERB', u'scoffs/VERB', u'backing/VERB', u'reach/VERB', u'entitles/VERB', u'place/VERB', u'post/VERB', u'opposes/VERB', u'expressed/VERB', u'betting/VERB', u'halt/VERB', u'purchasing/VERB', u'support/VERB', u'stepping/VERB', u'sleeping/VERB', u'laughing/VERB', u'confirmed/VERB', u'care/VERB', u'drove/VERB', u'swap/VERB', u'junk/VERB', u'auctioned/VERB', u'runs/VERB', u'decried/VERB', u'concern/VERB', u'subordinated/VERB', u'initiated/VERB', u'assess/VERB', u'intend/VERB', u'invent/VERB', u'spur/VERB', u'evaluating/VERB', u'disappears/VERB', u'sold/VERB', u'presented/VERB', u'reasons/VERB', u'strengthened/VERB', u'rebounding/VERB', u'founded/VERB', u'opposed/VERB', u'been/VERB', u'tune/VERB', u'wasted/VERB', u'stored/VERB', u'want/VERB', u'be/VERB', u'ratcheting/VERB', u'made/VERB', u'quipped/VERB', u'Advancing/VERB', u'prevent/VERB', u'tempts/VERB', u'finds/VERB', u'negotiating/VERB', u'relieve/VERB', u'ranged/VERB', u'chilled/VERB', u'welcomed/VERB', u'parallels/VERB', u'Named/VERB', u'avenge/VERB', u'secured/VERB', u'discontinuing/VERB', u'chooses/VERB', u'state/VERB', u'mitigate/VERB', u'had/VERB', u'permitting/VERB', u'ranging/VERB', u'defuse/VERB', u'Continued/VERB', u'forecast/VERB', u'based/VERB', u'presumes/VERB', u'packaging/VERB', u'depressed/VERB', u'living/VERB', u'buying/VERB', u'contesting/VERB', u'drew/VERB', u'diminished/VERB', u'pegged/VERB', u'sabotage/VERB', u'cutting/VERB', u'calculated/VERB', u'violated/VERB', u'slated/VERB', u'doubted/VERB', u'face/VERB', u'released/VERB', u'orders/VERB', u'file/VERB', u'exhausted/VERB', u'awards/VERB', u'belonging/VERB', u'brings/VERB', u'faint/VERB', u'battered/VERB', u'combines/VERB', u'killed/VERB', 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u'born/VERB', u'retaliating/VERB', u'passing/VERB', u'stemmed/VERB', u'hang/VERB', u'amounts/VERB', u'loved/VERB', u'was/VERB', u'heads/VERB', u'enhances/VERB', u'injecting/VERB', u'avoiding/VERB', u'felt/VERB', u'raced/VERB', u'impede/VERB', u'buy/VERB', u'researching/VERB', u'integrated/VERB', u'should/VERB', u'defeat/VERB', u'emerge/VERB', u'accounted/VERB', u'urge/VERB', u'are/VERB', u'slashing/VERB', u'shoot/VERB', u'reap/VERB', u'get/VERB', u'received/VERB', u'deem/VERB', u'performing/VERB', u'lying/VERB', u'matter/VERB', u'inspired/VERB', u'conflict/VERB', u'helped/VERB', u'submit/VERB', u'receiving/VERB', u'portray/VERB', u'insured/VERB', u'Compare/VERB', u'burned/VERB', u'stays/VERB', u'nullified/VERB', u'transcribe/VERB', u'accused/VERB', u'making/VERB', u'cheat/VERB', u'say/VERB', u'understand/VERB', u'installing/VERB', u'acts/VERB', u'restructure/VERB', u'generate/VERB', u'slowing/VERB', u'cited/VERB', u'announced/VERB', u'resent/VERB', u'deal/VERB', u'reviewed/VERB', u'slid/VERB', u'respected/VERB', u'sorting/VERB', u'concluded/VERB', u'aiming/VERB', u'change/VERB', u'cover/VERB', u'expedited/VERB', u'spending/VERB', u'capped/VERB', u'resembles/VERB', u'refile/VERB', u'heading/VERB', u'increasing/VERB', u'Forget/VERB', u'barred/VERB', u'said/VERB', u'shipping/VERB', u'overvalued/VERB', u'pitting/VERB', u'evaporated/VERB', u'confirm/VERB', u'Starting/VERB', u'underpin/VERB', u'moving/VERB', u'outstrips/VERB', u'won/VERB', u'Related/VERB', u'deliberating/VERB', u'capitalized/VERB', u'refunded/VERB', u'billed/VERB', u'publicized/VERB', u'anticipated/VERB', u'deprived/VERB', u'listed/VERB', u'assuming/VERB', u'seems/VERB', u'studying/VERB', u'seek/VERB', u'reimbursed/VERB', u'triggered/VERB', u'automated/VERB', u'turn/VERB', u'benefits/VERB', u'wrecking/VERB', u'jumping/VERB', u'clicked/VERB', u'applied/VERB', u'started/VERB', u'warned/VERB', u'assumed/VERB', u'justify/VERB', u'troubled/VERB', u'raising/VERB', u'speculating/VERB', u'co-founded/VERB', u'introduces/VERB', u'restricts/VERB', u'lessening/VERB', u'hunker/VERB', u'fold/VERB', u'sparking/VERB', u'purrs/VERB', u'underwent/VERB', u'shrank/VERB', u'heated/VERB', u'reversed/VERB', u'relegated/VERB', u'created/VERB', u'soaring/VERB', u'recruiting/VERB', u'walk/VERB', u'offend/VERB', u'declared/VERB', u'equip/VERB', u'provide/VERB', u'amended/VERB', u'top/VERB', u'bought/VERB', u'scheduled/VERB', u'suspend/VERB', u'mend/VERB', u'Do/VERB', u'replicate/VERB', u'cry/VERB', u'uttering/VERB', u'folded/VERB', u'attract/VERB', u'rewrite/VERB', u'revived/VERB', u'grant/VERB', u'exist/VERB', u'stressing/VERB', u'use/VERB', u'handle/VERB', u'responded/VERB', u'spotted/VERB', u'stemming/VERB', u'Citing/VERB', u'eyeing/VERB', u'entrusted/VERB', u'Posted/VERB', u'exacerbated/VERB', u'tender/VERB', u'rebuked/VERB', u'sticking/VERB', u'review/VERB', u'charges/VERB', u'frustrating/VERB', u'tested/VERB', u'Taking/VERB', u'taper/VERB', u'Estimated/VERB', u'disagree/VERB', u'answer/VERB', u'exceeded/VERB', u'erodes/VERB', u'twisting/VERB', u'removing/VERB', u'believe/VERB', u'fainting/VERB', u'raised/VERB', u'spurring/VERB', u'empowered/VERB', u'claimed/VERB', u'avert/VERB', u'gored/VERB', u'understands/VERB', u'observed/VERB', u'recommending/VERB', u'thinks/VERB', u'induce/VERB', u'urging/VERB', u'trim/VERB', u'experience/VERB', u'threatened/VERB', u'using/VERB', u'painted/VERB', u'screwed/VERB', u'hurting/VERB', u'return/VERB', u'mature/VERB', u'armed/VERB', u'compares/VERB', u'flies/VERB', u'rarefied/VERB', u'abandon/VERB', u'transacting/VERB', u'patented/VERB', u'try/VERB', u'keeps/VERB', u'indicated/VERB', u'bribed/VERB', u'house/VERB', u'inched/VERB', u'transfer/VERB', u'jumped/VERB', u'tendered/VERB', u'polish/VERB', u'referring/VERB', u'panic/VERB', u'speculated/VERB', u'owned/VERB', u'finance/VERB', u'drink/VERB', u'became/VERB', u'rung/VERB', u'benefit/VERB', u'driving/VERB', u'inherited/VERB', u'devoted/VERB', u'compel/VERB', u'educated/VERB', u'achieved/VERB', u'whipsaw/VERB', u'Filling/VERB', u'rallying/VERB', u'fizzled/VERB', u'earn/VERB', u'claims/VERB', u'picked/VERB', u'compare/VERB', u'resonate/VERB', u'were/VERB', u'involving/VERB', u'moves/VERB', u'murdered/VERB', u'ranked/VERB', u'surviving/VERB', u'refreshing/VERB', u'shall/VERB', u'frozen/VERB', u'slowed/VERB', u'outbid/VERB', u'talk/VERB', u'reflect/VERB', u'assassinated/VERB', u'played/VERB', u'remarked/VERB', u'funding/VERB', u'recede/VERB', u'noted/VERB', u'budding/VERB', u'specializes/VERB', u'heightened/VERB', u'exploit/VERB', u'compensate/VERB', u'derived/VERB', u'forces/VERB', u'retraced/VERB', u'relied/VERB', u'import/VERB', u'risk/VERB', u'talked/VERB', u'alleging/VERB', u'reminded/VERB', u'cascading/VERB', u'shaping/VERB', u'talking/VERB', u'obtained/VERB', u'survive/VERB', u'contrast/VERB', u'jump/VERB', u'lock/VERB', u'Annualized/VERB', u'choosing/VERB', u'invested/VERB', u'ending/VERB', u'look/VERB', u'minted/VERB', u'goes/VERB', u'looked/VERB', u'bring/VERB', u'lessen/VERB', u'broke/VERB', u'print/VERB', u'Stung/VERB', u'facilitate/VERB', u'fuming/VERB', u'fared/VERB', u'helping/VERB', u'Defending/VERB', u'adds/VERB', u'tolerate/VERB', u'tracked/VERB', u'accelerated/VERB', u'planning/VERB', u'collapsed/VERB', u'skidded/VERB', u'decides/VERB', u'challenge/VERB', u'Founded/VERB', u'dropped/VERB', u'lose/VERB', u'read/VERB', u'sneaked/VERB', u'prepared/VERB', u'conforms/VERB', u'downgraded/VERB', u'adapting/VERB', u'apologizing/VERB', u'crashing/VERB', u'aid/VERB', u'chose/VERB', u'named/VERB', u'purchase/VERB', u'approve/VERB', u'migrate/VERB', u'enraged/VERB', u'aired/VERB', u'ignoring/VERB', u'surfaced/VERB', u'disappear/VERB', u'acquired/VERB', u'stimulating/VERB', u'disclose/VERB', u'prosecuted/VERB', u'represents/VERB', u'markets/VERB', u'devised/VERB', u'sounding/VERB', u'bearing/VERB', u'air/VERB', u'withdrawn/VERB', u'corrected/VERB', u'bless/VERB', u'interrogated/VERB', u'overcome/VERB', u'view/VERB', u'convinced/VERB', u'denies/VERB', u'skyrocketed/VERB', u'arrive/VERB', u'unsettled/VERB', u'recovering/VERB', u'existing/VERB', u'am/VERB', u'sagging/VERB', u'hear/VERB', u'specify/VERB', u'discontinue/VERB', u'improve/VERB', u'faced/VERB', u'encouraging/VERB', u'omitted/VERB', u'involved/VERB', u'climb/VERB', u'evoking/VERB']

In [8]:
wsj = nltk.corpus.treebank.tagged_words()
word_tag_fd = nltk.FreqDist(wsj) 
[word + "/" + tag for (word, tag) in word_tag_fd if tag.startswith('V')]
Out[8]:
[u'attributes/VBZ',
 u'negotiated/VBN',
 u'failed/VBD',
 u'printed/VBN',
 u'sticking/VBG',
 u'close/VB',
 u'filed/VBN',
 u'teaches/VBZ',
 u'chooses/VBZ',
 u'suffer/VBP',
 u'agree/VBP',
 u'buy/VBP',
 u'called/VBN',
 u'underline/VB',
 u'controlling/VBG',
 u'exhausted/VBN',
 u'declaring/VBG',
 u'staid/VBN',
 u'stretching/VBG',
 u'packaging/VBG',
 u'study/VBP',
 u'mount/VB',
 u'sparing/VBG',
 u'guaranteed/VBN',
 u'confined/VBN',
 u'gives/VBZ',
 u'provoke/VB',
 u'frustrating/VBG',
 u'oversee/VB',
 u'suing/VBG',
 u'secured/VBN',
 u'lock/VB',
 u'factoring/VBG',
 u'remarked/VBD',
 u'decided/VBN',
 u'accepted/VBN',
 u'broken/VBN',
 u'bowed/VBD',
 u'zoomed/VBN',
 u'prompted/VBN',
 u'declining/VBG',
 u'get/VBP',
 u'cry/VBP',
 u'acquired/VBN',
 u'tightening/VBG',
 u'perceives/VBZ',
 u'slowing/VBG',
 u'reacted/VBD',
 u'replace/VB',
 u'built/VBN',
 u'viewed/VBN',
 u'Standing/VBG',
 u'anticipated/VBN',
 u'speaks/VBZ',
 u'measured/VBN',
 u'shaping/VBG',
 u'imposed/VBD',
 u'trimmed/VBN',
 u'rebuked/VBD',
 u'suggests/VBZ',
 u'mimics/VBZ',
 u'welcomed/VBN',
 u'enclosed/VBN',
 u'returned/VBD',
 u'breaks/VBZ',
 u'go/VBP',
 u'predicated/VBN',
 u'reallocate/VB',
 u'accrue/VB',
 u'reversed/VBD',
 u'attempt/VB',
 u'deliver/VBP',
 u'grown/VBN',
 u'recalling/VBG',
 u'completing/VBG',
 u'ordered/VBN',
 u'crossed/VBN',
 u'limited/VBD',
 u'diminish/VB',
 u'traveled/VBD',
 u'regulate/VB',
 u'accepting/VBG',
 u'slashing/VBG',
 u'ban/VB',
 u'knitted/VBN',
 u'reviewed/VBD',
 u'depended/VBD',
 u'get/VB',
 u'stare/VBP',
 u'approach/VBP',
 u'admitting/VBG',
 u'designed/VBN',
 u'tripled/VBD',
 u'seek/VB',
 u'enraged/VBD',
 u'feel/VB',
 u'screwed/VBD',
 u'treating/VBG',
 u'touch/VB',
 u'questioned/VBD',
 u'industrialized/VBN',
 u'copying/VBG',
 u'time/VB',
 u'preclude/VB',
 u'conduct/VBP',
 u'meet/VBP',
 u'averaged/VBD',
 u'expecting/VBG',
 u'push/VBP',
 u'dismiss/VBP',
 u'serviced/VBN',
 u'promise/VBP',
 u'derived/VBN',
 u'encounter/VB',
 u'emerging/VBG',
 u'murdered/VBN',
 u'favored/VBD',
 u'stacked/VBN',
 u'lowered/VBN',
 u'watch/VB',
 u'evaluating/VBG',
 u'suspended/VBD',
 u'treated/VBD',
 u'combined/VBN',
 u'prosecuting/VBG',
 u'drink/VBP',
 u'mandates/VBZ',
 u'eliminated/VBD',
 u'controls/VBZ',
 u'intend/VB',
 u'seek/VBP',
 u'racing/VBG',
 u'pointed/VBD',
 u'laying/VBG',
 u'parallel/VB',
 u'Offering/VBG',
 u'pitches/VBZ',
 u'installing/VBG',
 u'crying/VBG',
 u'launched/VBN',
 u'depending/VBG',
 u'set/VBP',
 u'sew/VB',
 u'working/VBG',
 u'exercise/VB',
 u'emerged/VBD',
 u'reflect/VBP',
 u'told/VBD',
 u'operate/VB',
 u'rarefied/VBN',
 u'Make/VB',
 u'fault/VBP',
 u'inched/VBD',
 u'inflated/VBN',
 u'cooled/VBN',
 u'account/VBP',
 u'eclipse/VB',
 u'propagandizes/VBZ',
 u'integrated/VBN',
 u'markets/VBZ',
 u'collected/VBN',
 u'Provided/VBN',
 u'give/VB',
 u'practicing/VBG',
 u'managed/VBD',
 u'start/VB',
 u'demonstrating/VBG',
 u'form/VB',
 u'climbed/VBN',
 u'feed/VBP',
 u'predispose/VB',
 u'brightened/VBD',
 u'consist/VBP',
 u'contrast/VBP',
 u'planned/VBD',
 u'Used/VBN',
 u'mature/VBP',
 u'produced/VBN',
 u'included/VBD',
 u'select/VB',
 u'reaching/VBG',
 u'overlap/VB',
 u'done/VBN',
 u'mature/VB',
 u'contain/VB',
 u'alleged/VBD',
 u'disseminating/VBG',
 u'come/VBN',
 u'stifle/VB',
 u'skidded/VBD',
 u'bribed/VBD',
 u'recognize/VBP',
 u'celebrate/VB',
 u'pass/VB',
 u'question/VBP',
 u'argued/VBN',
 u'contains/VBZ',
 u'taking/VBG',
 u'represented/VBD',
 u'leave/VBP',
 u'decrease/VB',
 u'stem/VB',
 u'existed/VBN',
 u'rationed/VBN',
 u'squeezed/VBN',
 u'admits/VBZ',
 u'note/VBP',
 u'limit/VB',
 u'citing/VBG',
 u'sought/VBN',
 u'start/VBP',
 u'guided/VBD',
 u'send/VB',
 u'considering/VBG',
 u'disappears/VBZ',
 u'cushioned/VBN',
 u'quoted/VBN',
 u'tune/VBP',
 u'halt/VB',
 u'diagnosed/VBN',
 u'offset/VBP',
 u'touched/VBD',
 u'live/VB',
 u'relegated/VBN',
 u'looming/VBG',
 u'eliminating/VBG',
 u'runs/VBZ',
 u'extended/VBD',
 u'prove/VB',
 u'fed/VBD',
 u'examine/VBP',
 u'imposes/VBZ',
 u'resulting/VBG',
 u'faced/VBN',
 u'buoyed/VBN',
 u'attached/VBD',
 u'rising/VBG',
 u'gloss/VBP',
 u'slowed/VBN',
 u'allow/VB',
 u'hope/VB',
 u'averted/VBN',
 u'feeds/VBZ',
 u'work/VBP',
 u'lost/VBD',
 u'Forget/VB',
 u'providing/VBG',
 u'fundraising/VBG',
 u'approved/VBN',
 u'responding/VBG',
 u'traveling/VBG',
 u'got/VBD',
 u'interested/VBN',
 u'digs/VBZ',
 u'borrowed/VBN',
 u'acquire/VB',
 u'feel/VBP',
 u'dislike/VBP',
 u'prevailing/VBG',
 u'fund/VB',
 u'marketing/VBG',
 u'values/VBZ',
 u"'re/VBP",
 u'pine/VBP',
 u'repay/VB',
 u"'ve/VBP",
 u'believe/VBP',
 u'diversifying/VBG',
 u'undo/VB',
 u'determined/VBN',
 u'follow/VB',
 u'cared/VBD',
 u'enticed/VBD',
 u'referred/VBD',
 u'Funded/VBN',
 u'acknowledging/VBG',
 u'pour/VB',
 u'know/VB',
 u'stemmed/VBD',
 u'fled/VBD',
 u'assembled/VBN',
 u'sued/VBD',
 u'faces/VBZ',
 u'imagine/VB',
 u'glamorize/VB',
 u'chastised/VBN',
 u'import/VBP',
 u'measures/VBZ',
 u'concluded/VBN',
 u'trim/VB',
 u'clamped/VBN',
 u'hire/VBP',
 u'includes/VBZ',
 u'bribing/VBG',
 u'screened/VBD',
 u'expanded/VBN',
 u'augment/VB',
 u'cite/VB',
 u'compressed/VBN',
 u'intended/VBN',
 u'orders/VBZ',
 u'named/VBD',
 u'referring/VBG',
 u'receive/VB',
 u'change/VB',
 u'researching/VBG',
 u'killing/VBG',
 u'builds/VBZ',
 u'downgraded/VBD',
 u'signal/VB',
 u'facing/VBG',
 u'reach/VBP',
 u'hopes/VBZ',
 u'show/VBP',
 u'executing/VBG',
 u'argue/VB',
 u'painted/VBN',
 u'covered/VBD',
 u'banking/VBG',
 u'claimed/VBD',
 u'started/VBD',
 u'resisting/VBG',
 u'stand/VBP',
 u'slated/VBN',
 u'discovered/VBD',
 u'disclosed/VBN',
 u'fall/VBP',
 u'shoot/VB',
 u'expire/VB',
 u'recouped/VBN',
 u'considered/VBN',
 u'heating/VBG',
 u'stored/VBD',
 u'transcribe/VBP',
 u'succeeds/VBZ',
 u'slipped/VBD',
 u'spurred/VBN',
 u'comment/VB',
 u'swing/VB',
 u'suit/VB',
 u'rebuild/VB',
 u'spent/VBD',
 u'continued/VBN',
 u'attempting/VBG',
 u'seduce/VB',
 u'sweetened/VBN',
 u'released/VBN',
 u'boosted/VBN',
 u'asked/VBD',
 u'issuing/VBG',
 u'demand/VB',
 u'exists/VBZ',
 u'demanding/VBG',
 u'distributed/VBN',
 u'overdone/VBN',
 u'sold/VBD',
 u'revolves/VBZ',
 u'strip/VB',
 u'complains/VBZ',
 u'experiencing/VBG',
 u'yield/VB',
 u'attempted/VBD',
 u'trained/VBN',
 u'battered/VBN',
 u'decided/VBD',
 u'hang/VBP',
 u'studying/VBG',
 u'broaden/VB',
 u'gone/VBN',
 u'polled/VBN',
 u'created/VBN',
 u'total/VBP',
 u'revived/VBN',
 u'throws/VBZ',
 u'reached/VBN',
 u'enjoying/VBG',
 u'showed/VBD',
 u'alarmed/VBN',
 u'holds/VBZ',
 u'curtailed/VBD',
 u'picks/VBZ',
 u'joining/VBG',
 u'outdistanced/VBN',
 u'issued/VBD',
 u'barred/VBN',
 u'accommodate/VB',
 u'borrowing/VBG',
 u'cut/VBN',
 u'violated/VBD',
 u'moving/VBG',
 u'accounts/VBZ',
 u'Taking/VBG',
 u'skipped/VBD',
 u'ranged/VBN',
 u'reimbursed/VBN',
 u'wedded/VBN',
 u'continues/VBZ',
 u'preserving/VBG',
 u'realize/VBP',
 u'perpetuate/VBP',
 u'lease/VB',
 u'centers/VBZ',
 u'tote/VB',
 u'impede/VB',
 u'became/VBD',
 u'offered/VBN',
 u'earns/VBZ',
 u'carry/VB',
 u'priced/VBN',
 u'interviewed/VBN',
 u'improve/VBP',
 u'sounding/VBG',
 u'omitted/VBN',
 u'think/VBP',
 u'cruising/VBG',
 u'signed/VBN',
 u'expects/VBZ',
 u'posting/VBG',
 u'adjusting/VBG',
 u'improved/VBN',
 u'expired/VBD',
 u'orchestrated/VBN',
 u'sign/VB',
 u'nominate/VB',
 u'live/VBP',
 u'assured/VBN',
 u'torn/VBN',
 u'spent/VBN',
 u'permits/VBZ',
 u'attract/VB',
 u'bless/VB',
 u'stays/VBZ',
 u'see/VB',
 u'repaired/VBN',
 u'allowed/VBD',
 u'commanded/VBN',
 u'exist/VB',
 u'waiting/VBG',
 u'softening/VBG',
 u'targets/VBZ',
 u'train/VB',
 u'betting/VBG',
 u'handed/VBD',
 u'recruited/VBN',
 u'forced/VBD',
 u'benefited/VBD',
 u'explains/VBZ',
 u'grapple/VB',
 u'contesting/VBG',
 u'split/VBN',
 u'turned/VBD',
 u'channel/VBP',
 u'erode/VB',
 u'raise/VB',
 u'come/VBP',
 u'switched/VBN',
 u'trade/VB',
 u'design/VB',
 u'stop/VBP',
 u'proved/VBN',
 u'Developed/VBN',
 u'rose/VBD',
 u'rings/VBZ',
 u'balked/VBD',
 u'disseminate/VB',
 u'disagrees/VBZ',
 u'become/VB',
 u'reported/VBN',
 u'attract/VBP',
 u'warned/VBD',
 u'assuming/VBG',
 u'reclaim/VB',
 u'execute/VB',
 u'contained/VBN',
 u'surge/VB',
 u'directing/VBG',
 u'subpoenaed/VBN',
 u'dressed/VBN',
 u'copy/VBP',
 u'defuse/VB',
 u'feared/VBN',
 u'fawning/VBG',
 u'introduced/VBN',
 u'compensate/VB',
 u'publish/VB',
 u'quashing/VBG',
 u'maintained/VBN',
 u'achieved/VBN',
 u'blip/VB',
 u'easing/VBG',
 u'mixed/VBN',
 u'audit/VB',
 u'going/VBG',
 u'reopened/VBD',
 u'replicating/VBG',
 u'fretted/VBD',
 u'curled/VBD',
 u'tapping/VBG',
 u'seem/VBP',
 u'walking/VBG',
 u'jumped/VBN',
 u'cheat/VB',
 u'diminished/VBN',
 u'prefer/VBP',
 u'ratified/VBN',
 u'preferred/VBD',
 u'signifying/VBG',
 u'hurting/VBG',
 u'suspect/VB',
 u'midsized/VBN',
 u'elected/VBN',
 u'restored/VBD',
 u'shaken/VBN',
 u'upheld/VBN',
 u'accrued/VBN',
 u'authorizing/VBG',
 u'sends/VBZ',
 u'designing/VBG',
 u'unsettled/VBN',
 u'calculated/VBN',
 u'disconnect/VB',
 u'threatens/VBZ',
 u'encourages/VBZ',
 u'owed/VBN',
 u'Filling/VBG',
 u'regard/VBP',
 u'moderated/VBN',
 u'threatened/VBN',
 u'places/VBZ',
 u'impressed/VBN',
 u'construed/VBN',
 u'fired/VBN',
 u'claiming/VBG',
 u"'s/VBZ",
 u'resume/VB',
 u'shipped/VBN',
 u'posted/VBD',
 u'indulging/VBG',
 u'surfaced/VBD',
 u'confirmed/VBN',
 u'forecasting/VBG',
 u'emphasized/VBD',
 u'filed/VBD',
 u'purchased/VBD',
 u'point/VB',
 u'load/VB',
 u'print/VB',
 u'moved/VBD',
 u'generate/VB',
 u'rise/VBP',
 u'fails/VBZ',
 u'traced/VBD',
 u'headed/VBN',
 u'refile/VB',
 u'read/VBD',
 u'harped/VBD',
 u'begins/VBZ',
 u'keeps/VBZ',
 u'modify/VB',
 u'flush/VBP',
 u'harass/VB',
 u'ease/VBP',
 u'starts/VBZ',
 u'stresses/VBZ',
 u'stick/VB',
 u'committing/VBG',
 u'loses/VBZ',
 u'disagree/VBP',
 u'deteriorating/VBG',
 u'passing/VBG',
 u'edged/VBD',
 u'kill/VBP',
 u'controlled/VBN',
 u'enforce/VB',
 u'made/VBD',
 u'indicated/VBD',
 u'subdued/VBN',
 u'refer/VBP',
 u'discouraging/VBG',
 u'calculate/VBP',
 u'collapsed/VBN',
 u'striving/VBG',
 u'jumping/VBG',
 u'Closes/VBZ',
 u'spend/VBP',
 u'strengthened/VBD',
 u'cultivated/VBN',
 u'rise/VB',
 u'rebuilding/VBG',
 u'project/VB',
 u'tailored/VBN',
 u'manufacturing/VBG',
 u'overused/VBN',
 u'operate/VBP',
 u'reflected/VBD',
 u'challenging/VBG',
 u'appearing/VBG',
 u'overcome/VB',
 u'parallels/VBZ',
 u'bled/VBD',
 u'bounce/VB',
 u'wanted/VBD',
 u'veto/VB',
 u'evaluated/VBD',
 u'welcome/VB',
 u'imported/VBN',
 u'reflect/VB',
 u'climb/VB',
 u'reorganized/VBN',
 u'run/VBP',
 u'corrected/VBN',
 u'coupled/VBN',
 u'seen/VBN',
 u'rigged/VBN',
 u'occurs/VBZ',
 u'contracted/VBD',
 u'disappear/VB',
 u'ended/VBD',
 u'cure/VB',
 u'born/VBN',
 u'depleted/VBN',
 u'lengthened/VBD',
 u'fill/VB',
 u'coming/VBG',
 u'omitted/VBD',
 u'lagging/VBG',
 u'calculate/VB',
 u'loaded/VBN',
 u'flies/VBZ',
 u'convinced/VBN',
 u'last/VB',
 u'slash/VB',
 u'clarified/VBN',
 u'assist/VB',
 u'merit/VB',
 u'vested/VBN',
 u'asking/VBG',
 u'laughing/VBG',
 u'scream/VB',
 u'posing/VBG',
 u'predicted/VBD',
 u'unwind/VB',
 u'belong/VB',
 u'decline/VBP',
 u'refuse/VBP',
 u'removed/VBN',
 u'cost/VB',
 u'withdrew/VBD',
 u'dismissed/VBN',
 u'engage/VBP',
 u'sputtered/VBD',
 u'combine/VB',
 u'promoting/VBG',
 u'absorbed/VBN',
 u'investigate/VB',
 u'abandoned/VBN',
 u'push/VB',
 u'sit/VB',
 u'Do/VB',
 u'understood/VBD',
 u'wear/VB',
 u'map/VB',
 u'scrambled/VBN',
 u'offsetting/VBG',
 u'moves/VBZ',
 u'performed/VBN',
 u'anticipating/VBG',
 u'retard/VB',
 u'strapped/VBN',
 u'denouncing/VBG',
 u'whistle/VBP',
 u'indicate/VB',
 u'Bucking/VBG',
 u'worsen/VB',
 u'encourage/VB',
 u'disposed/VBD',
 u'restructured/VBN',
 u'refitting/VBG',
 u'Continued/VBN',
 u'sacked/VBD',
 u'casts/VBZ',
 u'plan/VBP',
 u'restricts/VBZ',
 u'specialized/VBN',
 u'shake/VB',
 u'serve/VB',
 u'comes/VBZ',
 u'entered/VBD',
 u'recruit/VB',
 u'avoiding/VBG',
 u'called/VBD',
 u'match/VB',
 u'learned/VBD',
 u'advocate/VBP',
 u'injecting/VBG',
 u'undercut/VBP',
 u'unveil/VB',
 u'finalized/VBN',
 u'staying/VBG',
 u'juggle/VB',
 u'repriced/VBN',
 u'slides/VBZ',
 u'capture/VB',
 u'compel/VB',
 u'reporting/VBG',
 u'prevent/VBP',
 u'reopen/VB',
 u'told/VBN',
 u'ratcheting/VBG',
 u'hurt/VBN',
 u'viewing/VBG',
 u'restructuring/VBG',
 u'learn/VB',
 u'produce/VB',
 u'doubts/VBZ',
 u'incorporated/VBN',
 u'discharge/VB',
 u'instituted/VBN',
 u'assert/VB',
 u'let/VBP',
 u'monopolize/VB',
 u'hampered/VBN',
 u'stood/VBD',
 u'mend/VB',
 u'stressing/VBG',
 u'looks/VBZ',
 u'doling/VBG',
 u'notched/VBD',
 u'transacting/VBG',
 u'tailoring/VBG',
 u'inherited/VBD',
 u'earned/VBN',
 u'warning/VBG',
 u'mirrors/VBZ',
 u'imposed/VBN',
 u'go/VB',
 u'appease/VB',
 u'noticed/VBN',
 u'twisting/VBG',
 u'described/VBN',
 u'follow/VBP',
 u'dominated/VBD',
 u'did/VBD',
 u'lure/VB',
 u'said/VBD',
 u'enable/VB',
 u'realize/VB',
 u'participated/VBD',
 u'prevents/VBZ',
 u'encircling/VBG',
 u'practiced/VBN',
 u'cause/VB',
 u'compiled/VBN',
 u'tell/VBP',
 u'tackle/VB',
 u'withdraw/VB',
 u'rebound/VB',
 u'gain/VB',
 u'barred/VBD',
 u'panic/VB',
 u'supplies/VBZ',
 u'complete/VB',
 u'covers/VBZ',
 u'complicated/VBN',
 u'reasserts/VBZ',
 u'occur/VBP',
 u'spotted/VBD',
 u'convey/VBP',
 u'turn/VB',
 u'earning/VBG',
 u'add/VB',
 u'lengthen/VBP',
 u'appeal/VBP',
 u'heads/VBZ',
 u'addressing/VBG',
 u'gored/VBN',
 u'calls/VBZ',
 u'tripled/VBN',
 u'speculate/VB',
 u'oriented/VBN',
 u'argue/VBP',
 u'co-founded/VBD',
 u'classed/VBN',
 u'opposes/VBZ',
 u'OFFERED/VBN',
 u'qualified/VBN',
 u'impending/VBG',
 u'clicked/VBD',
 u'manipulate/VB',
 u'rejected/VBD',
 u'endorsed/VBD',
 u'spurns/VBZ',
 u'decide/VB',
 u'troubled/VBN',
 u'honor/VB',
 u'attracted/VBN',
 u'swing/VBP',
 u'emerge/VB',
 u'settle/VBP',
 u'completed/VBD',
 u'crossing/VBG',
 u'say/VB',
 u'firmed/VBD',
 u'justify/VB',
 u'rusted/VBN',
 u'Observing/VBG',
 u'saw/VBD',
 u'buys/VBZ',
 u'renew/VB',
 u'bar/VB',
 u'offering/VBG',
 u'mention/VBP',
 u'becoming/VBG',
 u'Buy/VB',
 u'do/VB',
 u'chosen/VBN',
 u'scheduled/VBN',
 u'roll/VB',
 u'risen/VBN',
 u'specialize/VB',
 u'drooled/VBD',
 u'reminded/VBD',
 u'adding/VBG',
 u'surged/VBN',
 u'deem/VBP',
 u'wish/VB',
 u'signaling/VBG',
 u'increases/VBZ',
 u'retires/VBZ',
 u'propose/VBP',
 u'free/VB',
 u'bolster/VB',
 u'devouring/VBG',
 u'affect/VBP',
 u'deterring/VBG',
 u'assume/VBP',
 u'offer/VB',
 u'swallow/VB',
 u'mounted/VBD',
 u'Posted/VBN',
 u'Think/VB',
 u'surrounding/VBG',
 u'kept/VBD',
 u'echoed/VBN',
 u'sacrifice/VB',
 u'tightened/VBN',
 u'extend/VBP',
 u'belonging/VBG',
 u'billed/VBD',
 u'turns/VBZ',
 u'undergoing/VBG',
 u'tender/VB',
 u'keep/VB',
 u'Winning/VBG',
 u'searching/VBG',
 u'tuck/VB',
 u'replacing/VBG',
 u'enables/VBZ',
 u'bankroll/VBP',
 u'means/VBZ',
 u'included/VBN',
 u'advised/VBD',
 u'shrank/VBD',
 u'neighboring/VBG',
 u'manufacture/VB',
 u'assigned/VBN',
 u'according/VBG',
 u'fought/VBD',
 u'presented/VBN',
 u'facilitate/VB',
 u'assumed/VBD',
 u'coated/VBN',
 u'finished/VBN',
 u'missed/VBN',
 u'Defending/VBG',
 u'watching/VBG',
 u'correct/VB',
 u'submit/VB',
 u'permit/VB',
 u'estimated/VBN',
 u'represented/VBN',
 u'have/VB',
 u'remain/VB',
 u'avoid/VBP',
 u'Named/VBN',
 u'insinuating/VBG',
 u'stop/VB',
 u'manages/VBZ',
 u'Touches/VBZ',
 u'alienated/VBN',
 u'accusing/VBG',
 u'granted/VBN',
 u'broadcasting/VBG',
 u'implements/VBZ',
 u'prepare/VB',
 u'tendered/VBN',
 u'quoted/VBD',
 u'profit/VB',
 u'meant/VBN',
 u'steal/VB',
 u'empowered/VBN',
 u'stepped/VBD',
 u'hit/VB',
 u'changes/VBZ',
 u'reduce/VB',
 u'featured/VBD',
 u'playing/VBG',
 u'testify/VB',
 u'alleged/VBN',
 u'received/VBN',
 u'complain/VBP',
 u'accept/VBP',
 u'leading/VBG',
 u'equip/VB',
 u'exhibited/VBN',
 u'cited/VBN',
 u'pushed/VBN',
 u'appear/VB',
 u'wrecking/VBG',
 u'snapped/VBN',
 u'retraced/VBD',
 u'plunged/VBN',
 u'adapting/VBG',
 u'hold/VB',
 u'lack/VBP',
 u'quoting/VBG',
 u'held/VBD',
 u'transformed/VBD',
 u'add/VBP',
 u'receives/VBZ',
 u'contributed/VBN',
 u'advocated/VBD',
 u'backed/VBN',
 u'take/VBP',
 u'approved/VBD',
 u'apologizing/VBG',
 u'joined/VBD',
 u'describe/VBP',
 u'narrowed/VBD',
 u'crippled/VBN',
 u'expect/VB',
 u'engineered/VBN',
 u'carried/VBN',
 u'promises/VBZ',
 u'advertised/VBN',
 u'recommend/VB',
 u'pay/VBP',
 u'changed/VBN',
 u'extended/VBN',
 u'loom/VBP',
 u'commit/VBP',
 u'relaunched/VBN',
 u'evaporated/VBD',
 u'impose/VB',
 u'single/VB',
 u'make/VBP',
 u'defying/VBG',
 u'continue/VB',
 u'underwent/VBD',
 u'diversified/VBN',
 u'set/VB',
 u'invests/VBZ',
 u'involves/VBZ',
 u'teach/VBP',
 u'buy/VB',
 u'producing/VBG',
 u'attempted/VBN',
 u'Is/VBZ',
 u'represent/VBP',
 u'plunging/VBG',
 u'swim/VBP',
 u'Excluding/VBG',
 u'gauging/VBG',
 u'yielded/VBD',
 u'fueled/VBN',
 u'shut/VB',
 u'ushering/VBG',
 u'prepared/VBN',
 u'redeem/VB',
 u'depressed/VBN',
 u'slide/VB',
 u'bring/VB',
 u'answered/VBN',
 u'nominated/VBN',
 u'whipsaw/VB',
 u'raise/VBP',
 u'triggered/VBN',
 u'lending/VBG',
 u'ran/VBD',
 u'act/VB',
 u'drop/VB',
 u'require/VBP',
 u'reprint/VB',
 u'prosecute/VB',
 u'noting/VBG',
 u'started/VBN',
 u'replicate/VB',
 u'noticing/VBG',
 u'romanticized/VBN',
 u'winding/VBG',
 ...]
In [58]:
cfd2 = nltk.ConditionalFreqDist((tag, word) for (word, tag) in wsj)
print cfd2['VBN'].keys() 
[u'limited', u'reorganized', u'managed', u'switched', u'caused', u'founded', u'assembled', u'concerned', u'contained', u'Rekindled', u'automated', u'bribed', u'voted', u'issued', u'cluttered', u'disapproved', u'sent', u'returned', u'synchronized', u'puzzled', u'desired', u'engineered', u'headlined', u'centralized', u'advised', u'stabbed', u'continued', u'perceived', u'presented', u'prolonged', u'Related', u'solved', u'noted', u'concluded', u'Filmed', u'infringed', u'construed', u'licensed', u'knitted', u'slowed', u'enclosed', u'replicated', u'estimated', u'imported', u'risen', u'assisted', u'beaten', u'contributed', u'expressed', u'enjoyed', u'industrialized', u'zoomed', u'crossed', u'learned', u'filled', u'told', u'drafted', u'deemed', u'kicked', u'led', u'ranged', u'slated', u'reported', u'focused', u'auctioned', u'crippled', u'represented', u'scrapped', u'invented', u'obtained', u'colored', u'skyrocketed', u'involved', u'changed', u'funded', u'expedited', u'Founded', u'diagnosed', u'stressed', u'postponed', u'settled', u'composed', u'rigged', u'named', u'retired', u'reclaimed', u'distributed', u'offset', u'brought', u'backed', u'aimed', u'trained', u'armed', u'strapped', u'fed', u'handled', u'answered', u'coupled', u'planted', u'upheld', u'opposed', u'taken', u'cited', u'surveyed', u'mired', u'started', u'clobbered', u'corrected', u'hurt', u'tested', u'known', u'mounted', u'Confronted', u'appointed', u'respected', u'valued', u'locked', u'pushed', u'plunged', u'labeled', u'UPHELD', u'romanticized', u'believed', u'specialized', u'performed', u'meant', u'indicated', u'stated', u'approved', u'organized', u'confused', u'heard', u'ensnarled', u'dropped', u'purchased', u'allowed', u'sought', u'bolstered', u'influenced', u'rationed', u'floated', u'conducted', u'dismissed', u'hampered', u'located', u'restructured', u'tried', u'battered', u'Funded', u'derived', u'confirmed', u'tied', u'outlawed', u'halted', u'fueled', u'designed', u'outdistanced', u'chilled', u'reaped', u'crowded', u'discontinued', u'accelerated', u'divided', u'twinned', u'executed', u'finalized', u'welcomed', u'developed', u'pointed', u'installed', u'produced', u'held', u'Absorbed', u'ratified', u'committed', u'argued', u'blocked', u'revived', u'hunted', u'rescheduled', u'chosen', u'fined', u'Stung', u'torn', u'heated', u'disclosed', u'covered', u'hidden', u'troubled', u'Continued', u'overcome', u'stepped', u'repriced', u'sweetened', u'anticipated', u'Annualized', u'qualified', u'impaired', u'documented', u'killed', u'subordinated', u'matched', u'mollified', u'overused', u'notified', u'warned', u'classified', u'arrested', u'identified', u'trimmed', u'deteriorated', u'found', u'repaired', u'characterized', u'referred', u'lifted', u'exacerbated', u'fired', u'populated', u'cultivated', u'positioned', u'related', u'extended', u'begun', u'inflated', u'intended', u'shown', u'opened', u'attracted', u'laid', u'dominated', u'got', u'integrated', u'announced', u'shut', u'disputed', u'assured', u'impressed', u'favored', u'parched', u'sparked', u'threatened', u'cut', u'Used', u'complicated', u'put', u'wanted', u'retained', u'created', u'Developed', u'diminished', u'shipped', u'competed', u'incorporated', u'entrusted', u'fallen', u'exhibited', u'chopped', u'secured', u'Rated', u'rooted', u'swapped', u'omitted', u'reflected', u'owned', u'talked', u'done', u'suspended', u'reached', u'noticed', u'loaded', u'buoyed', u'given', u'rated', u'renovated', u'needed', u'caught', u'structured', u'plagued', u'adopted', u'clarified', u'listed', u'passed', u'averted', u'consented', u'completed', u'diversified', u'expunged', u'interviewed', u'rejected', u'released', u'rectified', u'wasted', u'practiced', u'eliminated', u'convinced', u'polarized', u'decided', u'depressed', u'gotten', u'protected', u'orchestrated', u'treated', u'Regarded', u'turned', u'delisted', u'customized', u'depleted', u'cleaned', u'seen', u'relaunched', u'linked', u'viewed', u'forced', u'implemented', u'built', u'pursued', u'empowered', u'instructed', u'oriented', u'absorbed', u'attempted', u'provoked', u'collapsed', u'embroiled', u'added', u'altered', u'paid', u'serviced', u'rarefied', u'hired', u'connected', u'printed', u'assessed', u'alarmed', u'measured', u'Asked', u'soared', u'singled', u'insured', u'considered', u'calculated', u'upset', u'cushioned', u'looked', u'barred', u'accounted', u'left', u'responded', u'marketed', u'overpriced', u'contacted', u'agreed', u'supported', u'scattered', u'flirted', u'nominated', u'discovered', u'rusted', u'superimposed', u'forecast', u'pleased', u'based', u'quoted', u'earned', u'surged', u'inserted', u'staid', u'failed', u'won', u'judged', u'equipped', u'employed', u'pegged', u'Left', u'nullified', u'merged', u'borrowed', u'hit', u'harmed', u'compiled', u'banned', u'designated', u'preferred', u'Put', u'gored', u'hailed', u'shared', u'classed', u'interrogated', u'justified', u'ended', u'tanked', u'worried', u'rung', u'fixed', u'rumored', u'declared', u'set', u'achieved', u'acquired', u'instituted', u'observed', u'elected', u'accused', u'enhanced', u'operated', u'feared', u'said', u'mentioned', u'harvested', u'muted', u'jumped', u'diluted', u'clamped', u'rolled', u'written', u'determined', u'closed', u'surfaced', u'drawn', u'burned', u'bought', u'targeted', u'sold', u'negotiated', u'tripled', u'come', u'faced', u'received', u'improved', u'met', u'clashed', u'attributed', u'milked', u'coated', u'planned', u'publicized', u'traded', u'asked', u'compressed', u'climbed', u'adjusted', u'headed', u'had', u'maintained', u'regulated', u'ordered', u'allocated', u'withdrawn', u'described', u'condemned', u'escalated', u'been', u'convicted', u'defined', u'combined', u'expected', u'entered', u'chastised', u'educated', u'controlled', u'reallocated', u'painted', u'offered', u'formed', u'priced', u'finished', u'tightened', u'predicated', u'terminated', u'worked', u'applied', u'stacked', u'abandoned', u'frozen', u'expanded', u'expelled', u'cast', u'replaced', u'pressed', u'squeezed', u'launched', u'owed', u'selected', u'studied', u'played', u'dumped', u'engaged', u'helped', u'examined', u'commanded', u'spooked', u'amended', u'grown', u'overstated', u'damaged', u'subpoenaed', u'granted', u'stimulated', u'split', u'proved', u'Posted', u'used', u'edged', u'flooded', u'boosted', u'forgotten', u'muffled', u'nurtured', u'blamed', u'vowed', u'midsized', u'complained', u'Named', u'appropriated', u'kept', u'mortgaged', u'spent', u'echoed', u'magnified', u'thought', u'relied', u'Reached', u'charged', u'spurred', u'proposed', u'polled', u'Given', u'assigned', u'recycled', u'reimbursed', u'advertised', u'followed', u'portrayed', u'afflicted', u'renewed', u'regarded', u'deprived', u'guaranteed', u'spread', u'transformed', u'born', u'enacted', u'excited', u'surprised', u'scheduled', u'chaired', u'increased', u'read', u'confined', u'entrenched', u'accepted', u'disappointed', u'advanced', u'imposed', u'heightened', u'lost', u'tendered', u'discarded', u'served', u'endorsed', u'reduced', u'cooled', u'exposed', u'scared', u'financed', u'Guaranteed', u'understood', u'experienced', u'outpaced', u'provided', u'tracked', u'recorded', u'moderated', u'prosecuted', u'denied', u'forgiven', u'stopped', u'beleaguered', u'run', u'manufactured', u'refused', u'broken', u'murdered', u'prohibited', u'become', u'snapped', u'exercised', u'permitted', u'shaken', u'codified', u'gained', u'subdued', u'carried', u'obligated', u'OFFERED', u'discussed', u'stoked', u'mixed', u'introduced', u'wedded', u'Provided', u'raised', u'own', u'Concerned', u'capped', u'repaid', u'speculated', u'accumulated', u'frightened', u'prompted', u'existed', u'despised', u'minted', u'assumed', u'relegated', u'alleged', u'liquidated', u'awarded', u'preapproved', u'incurred', u'resulted', u'recruited', u'touted', u'revised', u'triggered', u'vested', u'unsettled', u'registered', u'delayed', u'collected', u'lowered', u'mailed', u'recouped', u'filed', u'sustained', u'removed', u'posted', u'directed', u'made', u'redeemed', u'spun', u'attached', u'capitalized', u'signed', u'placed', u'converted', u'faded', u'Estimated', u'called', u'detailed', u'gone', u'associated', u'exhausted', u'stripped', u'specified', u'moved', u'fattened', u'proven', u'dashed', u'promised', u'fashioned', u'watched', u'compared', u'initiated', u'dressed', u'overdone', u'scrambled', u'topped', u'robbed', u'interested', u'fizzled', u'requested', u'obsessed', u'delivered', u'refunded', u'felt', u'prepared', u'generated', u'invested', u'lent', u'included', u'decorated', u'curbed', u'died', u'missed', u'alienated', u'accrued', u'tailored', u'required', u'remarked']

Training a Tagger

In [10]:
from nltk.corpus import brown
brown_tagged_sents = brown.tagged_sents(categories='news')
brown_sents = brown.sents(categories='news')
In [11]:
tags = [tag for (word, tag) in brown.tagged_words(categories='news')]
nltk.FreqDist(tags).max()
Out[11]:
u'NN'
In [61]:
raw = 'I do not like green eggs and ham, I do not like them Sam I am!'
tokens = nltk.word_tokenize(raw)
default_tagger = nltk.DefaultTagger('NN')
default_tagger.tag(tokens)
Out[61]:
[('I', 'NN'),
 ('do', 'NN'),
 ('not', 'NN'),
 ('like', 'NN'),
 ('green', 'NN'),
 ('eggs', 'NN'),
 ('and', 'NN'),
 ('ham', 'NN'),
 (',', 'NN'),
 ('I', 'NN'),
 ('do', 'NN'),
 ('not', 'NN'),
 ('like', 'NN'),
 ('them', 'NN'),
 ('Sam', 'NN'),
 ('I', 'NN'),
 ('am', 'NN'),
 ('!', 'NN')]
In [62]:
default_tagger.evaluate(brown_tagged_sents) 
Out[62]:
0.13089484257215028
In [63]:
patterns = [
...     (r'.*ing$', 'VBG'),               # gerunds
...     (r'.*ed$', 'VBD'),                # simple past
...     (r'.*es$', 'VBZ'),                # 3rd singular present
...     (r'.*ould$', 'MD'),               # modals
...     (r'.*\'s$', 'NN$'),               # possessive nouns
...     (r'.*s$', 'NNS'),                 # plural nouns
...     (r'^-?[0-9]+(.[0-9]+)?$', 'CD'),  # cardinal numbers
...     (r'.*', 'NN')                     # nouns (default)
... ] 
In [64]:
regexp_tagger = nltk.RegexpTagger(patterns) 
regexp_tagger.tag(brown_sents[3]) 
Out[64]:
[(u'``', 'NN'),
 (u'Only', 'NN'),
 (u'a', 'NN'),
 (u'relative', 'NN'),
 (u'handful', 'NN'),
 (u'of', 'NN'),
 (u'such', 'NN'),
 (u'reports', 'NNS'),
 (u'was', 'NNS'),
 (u'received', 'VBD'),
 (u"''", 'NN'),
 (u',', 'NN'),
 (u'the', 'NN'),
 (u'jury', 'NN'),
 (u'said', 'NN'),
 (u',', 'NN'),
 (u'``', 'NN'),
 (u'considering', 'VBG'),
 (u'the', 'NN'),
 (u'widespread', 'NN'),
 (u'interest', 'NN'),
 (u'in', 'NN'),
 (u'the', 'NN'),
 (u'election', 'NN'),
 (u',', 'NN'),
 (u'the', 'NN'),
 (u'number', 'NN'),
 (u'of', 'NN'),
 (u'voters', 'NNS'),
 (u'and', 'NN'),
 (u'the', 'NN'),
 (u'size', 'NN'),
 (u'of', 'NN'),
 (u'this', 'NNS'),
 (u'city', 'NN'),
 (u"''", 'NN'),
 (u'.', 'NN')]
In [65]:
 regexp_tagger.evaluate(brown_tagged_sents) 
Out[65]:
0.20326391789486245

Lookup Tagging

In [14]:
fd = nltk.FreqDist(brown.words(categories='news')) 
cfd = nltk.ConditionalFreqDist(brown.tagged_words(categories='news')) 
most_freq_words = fd.keys()[:1000] 
likely_tags = dict((word, cfd[word].max()) for word in most_freq_words) 
baseline_tagger = nltk.UnigramTagger(model=likely_tags) 
baseline_tagger.evaluate(brown_tagged_sents) 
Out[14]:
0.09915070509378046
In [15]:
baseline_tagger = nltk.UnigramTagger(model=likely_tags, backoff=nltk.DefaultTagger('NN')) 
baseline_tagger.evaluate(brown_tagged_sents) 
Out[15]:
0.21971279113710046

How many words are enough?

In [18]:
def performance(cfd, wordlist):
    lt = dict((word, cfd[word].max()) for word in wordlist)
    baseline_tagger = nltk.UnigramTagger(model=lt, backoff=nltk.DefaultTagger('NN'))
    return baseline_tagger.evaluate(brown.tagged_sents())
In [19]:
import pylab
def display():
    words_by_freq = list(nltk.FreqDist(brown.words(categories='news')))
    cfd = nltk.ConditionalFreqDist(brown.tagged_words(categories='news'))
    sizes = 2 ** pylab.arange(15)
    perfs = [performance(cfd, words_by_freq[:size]) for size in sizes]
    pylab.plot(sizes, perfs, '-bo')
    pylab.title('Lookup Tagger Performance with Varying Model Size')
    pylab.xlabel('Model Size')
    pylab.ylabel('Performance')
    pylab.show() 
In [20]:
%matplotlib inline
display()
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
KeyboardInterrupt                         Traceback (most recent call last)
<ipython-input-20-cbf162f2f8a7> in <module>()
      1 get_ipython().magic(u'matplotlib inline')
----> 2 display()

<ipython-input-19-2a48b819c3e3> in display()
      4     cfd = nltk.ConditionalFreqDist(brown.tagged_words(categories='news'))
      5     sizes = 2 ** pylab.arange(15)
----> 6     perfs = [performance(cfd, words_by_freq[:size]) for size in sizes]
      7     pylab.plot(sizes, perfs, '-bo')
      8     pylab.title('Lookup Tagger Performance with Varying Model Size')

<ipython-input-18-aaccceb16971> in performance(cfd, wordlist)
      2     lt = dict((word, cfd[word].max()) for word in wordlist)
      3     baseline_tagger = nltk.UnigramTagger(model=lt, backoff=nltk.DefaultTagger('NN'))
----> 4     return baseline_tagger.evaluate(brown.tagged_sents())

/Users/andrew/anaconda/lib/python2.7/site-packages/nltk/tag/api.pyc in evaluate(self, gold)
     63 
     64         tagged_sents = self.tag_sents(untag(sent) for sent in gold)
---> 65         gold_tokens = sum(gold, [])
     66         test_tokens = sum(tagged_sents, [])
     67         return accuracy(gold_tokens, test_tokens)

/Users/andrew/anaconda/lib/python2.7/site-packages/nltk/corpus/reader/util.pyc in iterate_from(self, start_tok)
    393             # Get everything we can from this piece.
    394             for tok in piece.iterate_from(max(0, start_tok-offset)):
--> 395                 yield tok
    396 
    397             # Update the offset table.

KeyboardInterrupt: 
In [21]:
size = int(len(brown_tagged_sents) * 0.9)
print size
train_sents = brown_tagged_sents[:size]
test_sents = brown_tagged_sents[size:]
bigram_tagger = nltk.BigramTagger(train_sents)
print bigram_tagger.evaluate(test_sents)
print bigram_tagger.evaluate(train_sents)
4160
0.102760889066
0.78643629655

In [23]:
t0 = nltk.DefaultTagger('NN')
t1 = nltk.UnigramTagger(train_sents, backoff=t0)
t2 = nltk.BigramTagger(train_sents, backoff=t1)
print t2.evaluate(test_sents)
print t2.evaluate(train_sents)
0.844911791089
0.973597286817

In []: